From Appearance to Identity: How Census Data Collection Changed Race in America

Tuesday, April 17 2012 15:21 | Written by Lisa Wade, Ph.D.

Publicizing the release of the 1940 U.S. Census data, LIFE magazine released photographs of Census enumerators collecting data from household members. Yep, Census enumerators. For almost 200 years, the U.S. government counted people and recorded information about them in person, by sending out a representative to evaluate them directly.

It wasn't until 1980 that the government decided to collect Census data by mail-in survey. The shift to a survey had dramatic effects on at least one Census category: race.

Census enumerators gathering data Before 1980, Census enumerators categorized people into racial groups based on their appearance. They did not ask respondents how they characterized themselves. Instead, they made a judgment call, drawing on explicit instructions given to the Census takers. On a mail-in survey, however, the individual self-identified. They got to tell the government what race they were instead of letting the government decide. There were at least two striking shifts as a result of this change:

First, it resulted in a dramatic increase in the Native American population. Between 1980 and 2000, the U.S. Native American population magically grew 110%. People who had identified as American Indian had apparently been somewhat invisible to the government.

Second, to the chagrin of the Census Bureau, 80% of Puerto Ricans choose white (only 40% of them had been identified as white in the previous Census). The government wanted to categorize Puerto Ricans as predominantly black, but the Puerto Rican population saw things differently.

I like this story. SwCensus enumerators gathering dataitching from enumerators to surveys meant literally shifting our definition of what race is from a matter of appearance to a matter of identity. And it wasn't a strategic or philosophical decision. Instead, the very demographics of the population underwent a fundamental unsettling because of the logistical difficulties in collecting information from a large number of people. Nevertheless, this change would have a profound impact on who we think Americans are, what research about race finds, and how we think about race today.

See also the U.S. Census and the Social Construction of Race and Race and Censuses from Around the World.

Lisa Wade, Ph.D.

Lisa Wade, Ph.D.

Dr. Lisa Wade is a cultural critic and sociologist based in Los Angeles, California.  She holds a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and an M.A. in human sexuality from New York University. She is currently an Assistant Professor at Occidental College, where she teaches courses in gender, race, and sexuality.

Lisa’s research involves the intersection of inequality and the body. Widely published in well-regarded journals, her publications discuss gender and sexuality (including “hook up culture”), genital cutting (“ours” and “theirs”), the practice of journalism, and the tension between feminism and multiculturalism.

Lisa enjoys the occasional opportunity to give public lectures on her work. She also frequently serves as an expert source for journalists writing for outlets such as the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, CNN, ABC News, the Baltimore Sun, Bitch, the Chicago Tribune, CNN, the Columbus Dispatch, the Guardian, Ms., and the San Francisco Chronicle,.

Finally, Lisa is also the founder and editor, as well of an author of the most widely read sociology blog on the web, Sociological Images.   Presenting brief discussions of compelling and timely imagery that span the breadth of sociological inquiry, the site encourages all kinds of people to exercise and develop their sociological imagination. Sociological Images posts are frequently re-posted at Jezebel, Ms., Racialicious, and other sites, as well as routinely used as a source by a wide range of news organizations.

Website: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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